Companies that have a more concrete understanding of their resources can use this information to measure their advantage over their competitors.  In the 2013 study by Ozeml, Reuer and Gulati, they found that “different information” was an additional source of information asymmetry in venture capital and alliance networks; When different team members bring varied, specialized knowledge, values, and perspectives to a common strategic decision event, the lack of seamless information sharing among members leads to ineffective decision-making.  Contractual asymmetry (Law & Economics, Common Law) [De.: Contrat Asymmetry, Fr.: asymmetry of the contract, Gr.: Ασυμεετρία σσηs] (See also: contract theory, agent theory, information asymmetry, information economy, incomplete contracts) = the unequal bargaining power of the parties when one of the parties is better informed than the other. .