After a decisive election victory for Prime Minister Boris Johnson and the Conservative Party in December 2019, the UK Parliament ratified the Withdrawal Agreement 2020 and approved the withdrawal terms formally agreed between the UK government and the European Commission. After the ratification of the agreement by the European Parliament on 29 January, the United Kingdom left the European Union on 31 January 2020 at 23:00 (London time) with a withdrawal agreement from the European Union.  In several states, political parties are represented in national assemblies or in the European Parliament in favour of leaving the EU.  The UK began formal withdrawal negotiations by formally announcing to the European Council its intention to leave the EU. EU and UK negotiators reached an agreement on the draft Withdrawal Agreement that allows the European Council (Article 50) to adopt, on 23 March 2018, guidelines for the framework for the future relationship between the EU and the UK. The process of leaving the EU was launched by a referendum in June 2016, in favour of the UK leaving the EU with a lead of 4% (52% against 48%). In October 2016, British Prime Minister Theresa May announced that Article 50 would be invoked until the “first quarter of 2017”.  On 24 January 2017, in the Miller case, the Supreme Court ruled that proceedings could not be initiated without Parliament`s permission and ruled unanimously against the Scottish Government`s claim to decentralisation. Therefore, in March 2017, the European Union Act (Notification of Withdrawal) was passed, allowing the Prime Minister to invoke Article 50.
There are no clear agreements, treaties or precedents that cover the scenario of an EU Member State collapsing into two or more Member States. .